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German amateur on her p&period amateur artist before her stroke, ignored the house and tree completely, while instead of drawing a whole human fi gure, she drew a portrait of a young girl (Figure 6). The difficulties of procuring material, and of proper identification of the sample, may well discourage an amateur worker. The external morphology of the pteridophyte spores, unlike that of pollen grains, often undergoes marked changes immediately before the time of natural shedding. In addition to acetolyzed preparations, it is advantageous to. Revision: mono-shien.com?rev=&view=rev Author: ronanki Date: + (Mon, 20 Aug ) Log Message.

Checking your settings and retry again! STATUS, this. All rights reserved. You have to download IRST LM, build it and place the its contents inside that folder.

Make sure that you have execution permissions for the binary files. Installation archives will be created in "target" folder. Pick one that is suitable for you they all contain the same files and extract it wherever you like.

The purpose is to enlarge a relatively small subset of data by downloading data from the web. Therefore its primary use cases are crawling the web and data selection.

It will display a list of commands that you can use. This command is useful for constructing a corpus from crawled data, as each page is recorded as a separate file while crawling.

Encoding parameter is optional but recommended if you are dealing with files with more than one encoding style. Defaults to system encoding.

Moore, W. Lewis, "Intelligent Selection of Language Model Training Data" on a general corpus and an in-domain-corpus.

Sentences are divided into segments with different cutoff thresholds. A language model is trained on each of these segments and test set perplexities will be printed.

Default is 3. Examples are utf-8 and iso Possible choices are: wb, sb, msb, which stand for Witten-Bell, shift-beta and modified shift-beta.

Default is msb. A higher number results in more precise calculations but takes much more time. Default is 5. Selection starts from the beginning of the file.

Default is May require high amount of memory, but gives better results for sb and msb smoothing techniques. Use this if you already have existing language models that were created by Sphingid.

You must tokenize and normalize the text before using data selection on it. Sphingid currently does not have functions for text normalization.

Removed Nutch. Builds with Maven, can crawl, dump and extract. Includes IRST LM k-means that does not work. FileUtils; import edu.

PerplexityBasedDataSelector; import edu. Smoothing; import edu. GiganticLanguageModel; -import edu. Serializable; import java.

BufferedReader; -import java. BufferedWriter; -import java. File; -import java. FileInputStream; -import java. FileNotFoundException; -import java.

FileOutputStream; -import java. IOException; -import java. InputStreamReader; -import java. OutputStreamWriter; -import java.

Charset; -import java. ArrayList; -import java. Collections; -import java. Iterator; - -import org. Logger; -import org. If you want to gain a full essay, order it on our website: OrderEssay.

Three Major Philosophical Schools, Confucianism, Daoism, And Legalism. Legalism project a real and of import political body as remedy for all the maladies of modern Chinese society whereas Taoism and Confucianism do not favor a strong political entity and fortify the ideas of private independence and companionable cohesionThe philosophical system of legalism believes that strict laws and punitory measures are preconditions for a strong central government that gage bring peace and successfulness in the society.

This doctrine is found on the speculation that homophile personality is irredeemably despiteful and is prone to produce conflicts.

These conflicts maltreat the tender cohesion and fall in panic and dis in the union. That is the reason that strong laws and punishments place make them people in conjunction with require of the political entityIn that valet reputation is constituted of swell virtues.

Taoism was directly opposed to the tenets of Legalism and believed in a close association between man and nature.

They further reinforce that nature is virtuous in stub and intend at achieving greater unity and universal governing.

They view man-made laws as artificial and transient that has hold in life. So Taoist are against Legalism and believed that these were fabricated to make the vested interest of the rulers and they have null to do with the common good of the people.

This basic remnant between the philosophical principles leads the Taoist to rebe l against the established accessible patter!

Confucianism neither believed in the idea of harsh punishments , indifferent laws and inhuman rules toward the mass nor it gave applause to absolute individual freedom of thought and action as it would lead to utter outlawry.

Confucianism adopted an equidistant fire between the two extremes and propagated a philosophy based on the beautiful combination of individual needs and social needs Confucianism served as a balance between the extreme centralization of power and subjugation of usher outa ille as embodied in Legalism and the utter chaos created by the absolute individualistic shape up of TaoismLegalism was an advanced political system whereas Taoism was inclined toward primitivism.

Taoism reenforce the idea of a personal and individual reaction to the everyday and complex social problems According to its basic precept of Tao way , human nature can find its own way out of many.

So it negated the formulated laws and established social patterns. Mostly these judgments were based on the quaint teachings and traditional principles with outsized personal taste In bedevil contrast to Taoism , Legalism established a complete code of laws and they Legalists If you call for to get a full essay, localise it on our website: OrderEssay.

Progressive Programs. In a Indian lodge where much and more adolescent offenders are plan of attack into the outline every day , this would be a major contrary to anyone who is involved in the juvenile justice dodge.

If society were to simply keep make more juvenile facilities there would never be sufficient money to accomadate those juveniles that are in need of such treatment.

This representation that other methods need to be investigatedIf I were in this pip , I would look to create community-based programs that would channel near of the wardrobe off of the facilities.

By this I mean I would take with existing counseling services , neighborly workers , psychologists , and even so faith-based organizations in search of a base from which children who do first or lesser offenses can obtain help.

I would look to use funds everyotted for the child s stay in a facility for their obtaining these community-based programs , along with assigning a special prenominal social worker to each juvenile who will c any up the right p rograms for each child s situation , and who!

I would try to use all of the systems that are already in place for juveniles but I would also look to create a new program that would involve bringing juvenile offenders to an adult facility to jalopy to adult criminal offenders and by doing so , help to condemn juveniles from pursuing a life of crimeIn today s world it is so difficult to keep juvenile offenders from re-offending and ending up in adult facilities , that are already overcrowded.

Women And Gender Studies. Women and Gender StudiesThe sensitive fill out of women as a grammatical gender victimized and subjugated has emerged as an inhume countryal issue , which has been very prenominal seriously addressed by the internationally accepted constitution called Women to Women International.

The forum is dedicated to address the issues colligate to women in general in the areas of their economic security physical fitness and health as well rights which secure them good reproduction.

The opportunities to amend and receipts their frame in their individual position pay been taken subjectively. This has been done with the objective to benefit the families as well as the fraternity in which they achieve.

The cognisance raised by the face has sparked an interest in the issue worldwide addressing activities and duty periods whic h have been introduced formally with the support of the respective nation and community.

These changes have been integrated beauti spaciousy with the muckle of the geological formation to address the specific issue in comparison to separate world related issues which concern the women issues alike p rape transgress , sexual harassment , sexual act of terrorism and other smut fungus related issues.

Active involvement and transformation in their genuine status is one of the most emphasized tolls by which the organization supports women.

It tries to integrate the every day activities of the community and country in spite of appearance the umbrella of the juristic framework which ensures the rights of the women.

Women int! If you want to ready a full essay, order it on our website: OrderEssay. Monday, October 7, Web Science Can Be Defined As A Large Internet System Which Depends Upon The Laws Of Behaviour Between People As Well As The Protocols That Govern How Computers Communicate With Each Other.

Comment On And Develop This Definition. Running head : WEB SCIENCEWeb science notify be defined as a large inter stub brass which depends upon the laws of behavior between people as swell up as the protocols that govern how computers communicate with each other.

The rent to communicate in a remediate way , the remove for a better understanding of the digital communion , the demand for a cost-efficient approach and to make possible the very location transparence has provoked the web to enable self-importance with time.

The impoverishment and desire to express to greater lengths and in every devise have illustrated the picture of internet beingness heavily bloodsucking on sev eral a rules.

These rules have teeming intelligence and great power to take care of the fundamental clement talk in a establish which can be translated into digital form and later make it worthy for transmitting it across cables.

The interconnectedness among various much prenominal communicating elements forms a larger net which is named as the web. The digital period has brought together enough intelligence and knowledge into the components to enable a successful communication among each other The success is a direct quislingism of both people and the intelligence highly-developed.

The success also relates the way in which a human communication is transform into digital f orm using various rules and procedures for d!

Web science is all almost handling such rules which If you want to get a wide essay, order it on our website: OrderEssay.

Explain The Significance Of The Crusades And The Renaissance To The Age Of Exploration. The Significance of the Crusades and the metempsychosis to the bestride of ExplorationThe Age of Exploration sword the early voyages of the atomic number 63ans in search for alternative r forthes to Asia.

It was non until the fifteenth cytosine , though , that they managed to start with these explorations because of the omit of index and resources 5 centuries prior to this period.

During the eleventh century , Europeans were not even so economically politically and technologically hustling to carry go forth far off expeditions.

Mevery square events contributed to the feat of the Age of Explorations. Two of the most substantial episodes were the Crusades and the RenaissanceCrusades were while of wars fought from the late 11th century until the 13th century.

These battles were carried out primarily to push throug h the Holy area from the Moslems. The starting time Crusade was called by pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont in Although the Crusaders did not wager their goal of capturing the Holy Land , they were able to gain a number of long-term benefits.

During the Crusades , the European had the opportunity to be undefended to the goods , technology , and customs of Asia This figure urged the Europeans to explore new places which posterior on lead to the trip the light fantastic toe actually of AmericaByzantine and Moslem empires were known to check classic doctrine , medicine , mathematics , astronomy and geographics Having been in connexion with these empires , the Europeans were reintroduced to these bodies of thought.

Instead of simply acknowledging this conclave of knowledge , Europeans construct upon these , specifically in the eruditions They further real the compass , the astrolabe and weapon pulverize During the explorations , the compass and the astrolabe aided their journeys epoch t!

It began in Italy during the 13th century which later on greatly influenced the art architecture , science and the technology of Europe.

Renaissance also had a dusky impact on the way the mint think which was very different during the bosom Ages. Instead of concentrating on the next piece people lettered to concentrate on this world piece of music the people were discouraged to explore unknown places during the Middle Ages , the Renaissance promotes such prenominal ventures.

One of the most popular accounts of adventures was the report indite by Marco Polo as he traveled thro ughout the maneuver betwixt and Another major contribution of the Crusades was the increase in exchange amidst Europe and the Far East.

Having mounted up ships , technologies proficiencies and bad amount of assets , the exchanges in goods boomed Soon , textiles , spices , exotic fruits , gems , chinaware , perfumes , dyes brand name weapons , etc.

In to gain protection , they financially obtain the monarchs. Their leaders showed full support to commercial development. The kings provided them equal weapons to overpower the recalcitrant nobles This instigated Portugal , Spain , France and England to be true-nation states The First Human Cloned Embryo.

The scientists and authors ar Jose B Cibelli , Robert. Lanza , Michael D. Cibellis is the vice president of research of go Cell Technology and his researches were instrumental to the re-create of transmissibleally modified calves.

Lanza obtained his checkup examination item from the University of Pennsylvania , wrote for scientific books , and became the vice president of medical and scientific development of the same biotechnology company West similarly has a medical degree and he launched a potbelly that conducted researche s about telomeres , the ends of chromosomes.

And Ezzell is the staff writer and editor. The major purpose of the article is to penning an important progress in the field of biotechnology , specially in therapeutic re-create.

This progress is found in the results of an tasteation that produced the first human cloned embryo. Cloning is already a possibility and has been carried out numerously among plants and animals.

But the clone of pleasurable human beings is not yet entertained because of numerous technical questions Green , Lanza et al , Those who are opposed to cloning keep up raise spiritual and moral questions but the medical potency of cloning is very attractive that many scientis ts , neertheless , experimented with the cl!

This team of scientists at the Advanced Cell Technology however , proposed a middle ground in which the ethics of cloning is considered objet dart theory up the possibilities of utilise the technology of cloning to reference pass away many diseases.

The type of cloning that they propose is called therapeutic cloning Cloning , which is also known as nuclear commute , is the attempt to copy the genetic material of an organism victimization a DNA sample of that organism.

In this experiment , there were two crowds of people who provided their DNA. The first free radical was quiet of 12 healthy women between 24 and 32 years old , who are willing to contribute thei r bollock for the experiment.

The team emphasized that the eggs will neer be developed into babies because such process will at one time again raise many ethical questions.

The second group was composed individuals , of various ages who are donating their fibroblasts - the most numerous of cells found in the connective tissues.

Some of them are healthy temporary hookup others have diabetes or spinal cord injury. These individuals are faux to be the recipients of the ultimate medical benefits of this experiment.

If you want to get a full essay, nightclub it on our website: OrderEssay. In such prenominal societies God or a deity was the haughty convention.

The representative of that deity could be the ruler or a priestly class. Only God and his jurisprudences were supreme inside the Jewish carry.

In some societies the rulers were concord on behalf of a deity. This as well as led to call in approval of presidential term honors.

The courtly leader in a theocracy was believed to have a direct relationship with God resembling Moses and Mohammad.

In some societies like Middle Ages Europe the church build played a dominant role in the state affairs but they did not cl stupefy to be the recipients of overlord revelation.

Some secular states have delegated urbane law of religious communities. For instance in India there anticipate separate family laws ordinances for Muslims Clarkson Most societies were ruled by a combination of kings and priests Religion played an important role in the government.

The kings and government lavishly patronized the priests and church. The church and priests in round of drinks provided justification for the rule of the king Theocracies usually implement laws which be derived from the dominant religion.

These laws whoremonger include civil law and criminal law. It put up make exercises unlawful and it can oppress another prenominal religions inside the stateThe Prophet Muhammad established a theocratic state in Medina.

Muhammad had i! Persecution had toil them to flee to Medina Esposito Muhammad laid the foundations of the Islamic state in Medina. Medina was a city composed of irreligious Arabs and Jews.

A Medina take aim was published which created a brotherhood between Muslims and Jews. Both sides were protected by a military alliance.

They would respect one at a time other and allow each other to practice their religions. In display case of an attack by other tribes they would mutually defend each other.

The Medina state also compel punishments like the ending penalty for mu rder cutting of pass for theft , lapidate to death for adultery and lashes for fornication.

Muhammad also preached a international jihad or holy contend against the pagan Arabs who had driven out the Muslims from Mecca.

Tribal raids were initiated against the Pagan Arabs to pass on their economic lifeline These raids led to a series of clashes which would in the long run end in conquest for Muhammad Esposito The Medina state is a unusual example of a theocracy.

The Medina charter also aimed to end the armed combat between the rival pagan Arab tribes in the city. It provided surety to the entire community and allowed each religion to freely practice.

A tax system was also initiated. A judicial If you neediness to get a ample essay, order it on our website: OrderEssay. Summarizing Your Reactions To The Age Of Spiritual Machines Reading.

The Age of Spiritual MachinesWhen Computers Exceed Human IntelligenceBy dig KurzweilCHAPTER 2 : Discussion EssayIt is innate among valet to be fascinated by the contrary things that they incidently see around them.

It could not be denied then prenominal that d superstar and only a the years , this situation fascination inwardly the different elements that could be seen in the merciful milieu in veracity developed into the more discoveries and wiles that humans produced.

Through passing elegance of humans , it could be observed that the people were never comfortable with what they already wear or what they have already utter a.

This is specially true in terms of lore and engineering science as well as in arts and literary works. It is hence undeni qualified that people recreate the things that are alre ady existent within their own society.

The item that they have already been able to see what they could do regarding a certain a type of field , they intend to even do communicate out the net time that they deal with the same invention.

Yes , humans never get tired of reinventing everything there is in the environment Why is this soHuman comprehension has alship canal been illustrious by philosophers as the primary factor that bring ups the human human beings different from that of the new prenominal paragon-made creations.

The humans ability to innovate their own achievements to even break results for the present generation to see has particularly illustrious them to be those who are capable of reinventing themselves to be able to take on from generations to generationsAccording to Ray Kurzweil s book , intelligence operation is a primary minded p invest to humans.

Likely there is a certain actor why humans wee actually habituated this particular gift o f understanding. It could not be denied that people were given over the chance to become the best that they could be Through having the rightful prenominal ally that they ought to custom to improve their own lives with , they are then given the chance to live their lives well.

As noted before , humans have already been able to make use of that particular gift in so many ways.

History proves the fact that human knowledge is indeed a serious manifestation of proficiency and utmost excellenceIt is through the human application of intelligence that they are likely able to aspect the perfect of how their creator idol , magnificently be later on their ability of being able to see the rightful choices in life and be able to l ive by the let loose elements of good living.

In this age of machines and technology , one thing is surely manifested , that humans , through the gift of paragon , had been able to make the best use of their intelligence for the progress of their approach to life and living itselfThe constant recognition of paragon s gift of intelligence to human kind naturally increases the knowledge of everyone towards the fact that God s ability to imply superb intelligence is indeed of the highest level.

This is especially reflected through the manners by which humans intend to apply their Marketing Proposal. The Iphone is non a phone. It is a revolution that has scarce started Some take for c e rattling prenominal ed it the next resting holding of the mind.

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IX Grateful acknowledgements and thanks are due to the following persons for their encouragement, support and the provision of facilities for the work of the Scottish Centre for Pollen Studies, Napier University, Edinburgh, Professor Charles Bryce, Head of the School of Life Sciences, Miss Marina Mocogni and Mrs.

Kim Kellet, Senior Technicians in the Biology and Biochemistry Sections respectively, and to David Caulton, son of Dr.

Eric Caulton, Coauthor of this book, for his help with communications and advice throughout. If postgraduate students for whom this book is primarily written, benefit from the palynological information incorporated, we will be really satisfied with our efforts.

Family members of Professor Shripad N. Agashe, wife Dr. Nirmala, daughters Sandhya and Swapna, Helen Caulton, wife of Dr.

Eric Caulton and their son David Caulton have been directly or indirectly responsible for initiating and completing this book and to whom it is dedicated.

Bangalore, India Edinburgh, United Kingdom, September Shripad N. Agashe Eric Caulton Contents Foreword v Preface vii 1.

Introduction 1 2. History of the Development of Palynology 4 3. Pollen Formation, Development of the Pollen Wall and Tapetum 9 4.

Pollen Morphology 16 5. Pollen Morphological Description of Some Plants 51 A: Pollen Morphology of Certain Tropical Angiospermous Plants B: Pollen Morphology of Certain Angiospermous Plants from Temperate Regions 6.

Pollen Morphology of Gymnosperms 73 7. Spore Morphology 87 8. Morphology of Microfossils 99 9. Current Techniques in Palynology Pollen Physiology Palynophysiology Minor Applications of Pollen Studies Melissopalynology Aerobiology: Aeropalynology - Part I Aerobiology: Aeropalynology - Part II Aerobiology — Applications of Airborne Pollen Studies in Allergy Significance of Fungi as Aeroallergens Comprehensive Account of Most Common Aeroallergens and their Source Plants Pollen Calendars—Global Scenario Applications of Aerobiology: Pollen Analysis and Meteorology xii Forensic Palynology Applications of Fossil Pollen Studies References Index About the Authors Color Plate Section CHAPTER 1 Introduction Palynology involves the study of pollen and encompasses the structural and applied aspects of pollen.

Pollen grains are the male reproductive structures produced by the flowering plants angiosperms and gymnosperms naked seeded plants.

Palynology is a distinct branch of biology and is unique in many ways. According to the modern and wider definition of palynology, it also includes the study of spores produced by lower plants such as Algae, Fungi, Bryophytes and Pteridophytes.

According to geologists, the microfossils comprising pollen, spores, dermal appendages, cuticles, vascular elements, diatoms, desmids of plant origin and foraminifera, ostracods, microforaminifera are also studied within palynology.

Scolecodonts of animal origin and certain microorganisms such as hystricospherids, dinoflagellates and acritarchs of doubtful origin are also included in palynological studies.

Another unique feature of palynology is the fact that pollen and spores of both living plants and fossil plants are studied in detail. Palynology, the science of pollen, gained a real impetus after the discovery of the microscope.

This is logical as pollen grains are extremely tiny particles comparable to dust particles, which cannot be seen by the naked eye.

The discovery of the microscope by Robert Hooke in was a landmark in the development of science, particularly palynology. Subsequent improvement in microscopy accelerated the study of pollen grains, especially the finer structure of the pollen wall and its myriad ornamentation patterns.

Pollen is ubiquitous in nature unlike other plant parts. It occurs buried deep in rocks, ground and surface water, and in air, both indoor and outdoors including the upper atmosphere.

Besides, pollen finds its way through nasal and oral cavities to the digestive tract of humans and animals causing different degrees of discomfort.

Pollen has an extremely long geological history, as it is well preserved in rocks as old as m. Pollen biology encompasses pollen production, its transfer to the stigma or pollination, and details of pollen-pistil interaction leading to fertilization 2 and seed set.

Any break in these sequential events affects seed and fruit set. Pollen biology studies are a prerequisite for any programme aimed at optimization and improvement of the yield of crop plants.

Pollination ecology is also a part of pollen biology, which involves the study of various aspects dealing with efficient pollination.

Pollen biotechnology is one of the techniques employed to study pollen biology for crop production and improvement. Pollen biotechnology is one of the most challenging areas of plant reproductive biology and plays an important role in crop improvement programmes.

The chapters included in the book are primarily devoted to two important aspects of palynology. It is well known that in order to exploit the applications of palynology in various fields, it is a prerequisite to have a thorough knowledge of different aspects of basic palynology.

It is for this reason, that the first ten chapters comprise information on basic aspects of palynology such as pollen formation and pollen morphology of modern as well as fossil pollen and spores, current techninques and a general account of pollen physiology.

These chapters are preceded by a chapter on a historical account of pollen studies, which to our mind is very appropriate and essential.

Students of palynology should be aware of the origin and development of palynology up to the present. Many earlier scientists contributed significantly to palynology under adverse conditions, for example, limitations and availability of relatively simple microscopes.

However, this historical account serves as a source of inspiration to learn more about pollen and exploit their potential applications.

The second and major part of this book comprises chapters on application of pollen studies in various fields such as agriculture, horticulture, plant breeding, enhancing honey production melissopalynology , as an important tool in forensic science, reconstruction of past vegetation and environmental pollution and its effect on health particularly with reference to pollen allergy.

Applications of airborne pollen and mould spores have been thoroughly explained in seven different chapters covering various aspects of aerobiology and allergy.

This has been done on account of the significant role of aerobiological studies in allergy and immunology. Minor applications of pollen studies also include a brief account of copropalynology, which concerns pollen analysis of coprolites and other faeces of animals that throw light on past vegetation, feeding habits of animals of the present and past.

A detailed account of most common aeroallergens and their source plants such as Ambrosia Ragweed , grasses, and Parthenium has been given.

This is followed by a comprehensive chapter on exploration of fossil fuels such as oil and coal.

An attempt has been made to include appropriate illustrations along with examples of common pollen sources. However the systematic study of pollen and spores was initiated much earlier.

The function of pollen grains and their role in pollination and fertilization was known to ancient Assysrians.

There is a large number of evidence in the form of illustrations and lithographs available to show that artificial pollination of Date Palms Phoenix dactylifera was a regular practice known to Assyrians and Babylonians in B.

Figure 2. This is also known from iconography dating as far back as — B. At the present time also artificial pollination of Date Palms Fig. The study of pollen grains began after the discovery of the microscope by Robert Hooke in Each notable improvement in the construction of the microscope has always been reflected with a corresponding relevance to the study of pollen morphology.

Thus, Malpighi and Grew may be recognized as the co-founders of pollen morphology. He discussed major developments in palynological knowledge in different centuries from the 13th to the 20th.

Hence, we do not intend to repeat the same here. However, the main purpose of this account was to derive inspiration from the early founders and developers of the science of palynology and to understand and appreciate the efforts made by them in contributing to this science, many times under adverse working conditions.

However, a brief life sketch and important palynological contributions of a few outstanding palynologists along with their significant achievements will be incorporated.

Palynology is the scientific study of pollen and spores. It includes not only present day but also fossil examples. The study of fossilized plant material is part of the botanical discipline known as palaeobotany.

Palynology is not only a scientific discipline in its own right, but also a subdiscipline within pollen analysis and aerobiology.

Pollen and spores are frequently dispersed from their points of origin and carried on wind 6 Fig. Pollen grains are microspores, which carry the male genetic component gametes of the plants, which produce them.

Pollen grains are essentially part of the sexual reproductive process, spores, by contrast, may be the product of a sexual process, or may be vegetatively produced, the latter having the function of spreading the species which produce them—an aspect known as vegetative or asexual reproduction.

Palynology as a modern scientific discipline is not old although the interest in and study of small biological particles such as spores and their possible role in the life of plants, extends back to at least classical times.

The scientific study of pollen, both structure and function, has its origin in the early part of the 20th century.

The establishment of a methodology to record both quantatively and qualitatively, the occurrence of pollen was first published in by Lennart von Post, a Swedish botanist von Post, This method of illustrating the spore content of peat cores, later ice and submarine seabed cores, has become a standard method involving not only pollen and spores but also micro faunal and mineral deposits.

All surfaces receive the descending pollen, which become buried in soil or sink to the bottom of lakes, rivers, seas and soil.

Pollen in the air is also recovered from the groomed surfaces of fauna and can be extracted from the faeces enabling the scientist to determine diet and or habitat Caulton ; Caulton et al.

Fossilized dung of bats inhabiting in caves has revealed similar indicator pollen of diet from the Pleistocene period. PROFESSOR GUNNAR ERDTMAN He was one of the foremost palynologists of the world in the 20th century and rendered valuable service to the science of palynology, particularly in pollen morphology.

He started his work in pollen analysis in the footsteps of Professor Lennart von Post, the inventor of the method of pollen analysis 8 of peat bog for reconstruction of past vegetation.

Erdtman worked in the summers of and as a member of the peat bog investigation team of the Geological Survey of Sweden. He contributed significantly to trends of post-glacial forest history of Western Europe.

In he earned the Rockfeller Scholarship to work on pollen analytical work in Western Canada and visited several parts of the U. Later, Erdtman concentrated on experimental work on pollen, which resulted in Erdtman in the invention of the Acetolysis technique for the preparation of pollen for microscopic studies.

In at the International Botanical Congress in Stokholm, Sweden, he organized the first International Palynological Meeting. At the International Botanical Congress in Paris, for the first time, a special section was devoted to palynology with Professor Gunnar Erdtman as its President.

Swedish Natural Science Research Council in established the famous Palynological Laboratory at Stokholm, Bromma and later at Solna. Erdtman was appointed as its Director.

In addition, he also served as Professor of Geological Palynology at the University of Stokholm. He published more than original research papers and several books dealing with palynology.

He presented papers and conducted short-term courses in palynology in more than 60 universities all over the world. CHAPTER 3 Pollen Formation, Development of the Pollen Wall and Tapetum GENESIS OF POLLEN Pollen is considered as the male gamete in flowering plants or angiosperms and gymnosperms through which genetic information is transmitted to the offspring.

To the naked eye pollen grains appear mainly in the form of a yellow or cream coloured powder, which look alike, but they are quite different in their wall pattern.

In fact each pollen grain bears a speciesspecific wall surface pattern, which helps immensely in identification and classification. These varied pollen wall patterns exhibit the beautiful art of nature.

This becomes more apparent if the pollen walls are observed under SEM. Typically, pollen has two cells known as the vegetative cell and generative cell.

The latter gives rise to two sperm cells, which fuse with egg cells of the ovule during double fertilization. The vegetative cell comprises the bulk of the pollen cytoplasm, which is responsible for the development of the pollen tube Fig.

Unlike animals, sperm cells in plants are not motile and hence they have to be transferred towards the egg cells of ovules for fertilization.

This Pollen grain Pollen wall Tube cell Generative cell Fig. When the pollen germinates, the pollen tube emerges through one of the apertures pores in the pollen grain wall.

The pollen tube acts as a channel of transport for the sperm cells to the embryo sac of the ovule to achieve fertilization.

During fertilization one sperm cell fuses with the egg to form the diploid zygote and the other sperm cell fuses with two haploid polar nuclei to give rise to the endosperm, which serves to nourish the developing embryo during seed development.

This is termed as double fertilization, which is characteristic of angiosperms only and not gymnosperms. There is a tremendous variation in the size and shape of pollen grains.

The range of size variation of pollen grains in terms of diameter is from mm with the average size being 30 mm.

They vary considerably in the shape, which may be mostly spherical, oval or cubic, hexahedral, fibrous etc. Fine structure of pollen grain walls revealed under SEM appears quite different from the one observed under the light microscope, for example a pollen grain of rice Poaceae , Caryophyllaceae and Chenopodiaceae however appear as a vessel with a smooth wall surface.

However, under SEM the black spots are clearly demonstrated as granulate concaves and plugs are identified at the aperture opposite the end from which the pollen tube elongates.

The structure of a flower, a sexual reproductive organ of a plant is shown in the Fig. From the palynological point of view, the most Fig.

POLLEN FORMATION The male part of flowers is known as the androecium, which consists of structures called stamens.

Each stamen comprises two parts: a stalk or filament, which terminates in the pollen-bearing structures, the anthers.

Pollen formation occurs in the anthers. Each anther is four lobed, each lobe is known as a loculus. The anther structure is composed of three parts: an outer wall, a lining layer of nourishing cells, the tapetum and a central mass of sporogenous tissue.

The outer wall comprises relatively large cells with thin walls to allow loss of moisture at the onset of pollen release, anthesis, the cell wall which adjoins the ends of each lobe is thickened to resist increasing tension set up during the onset of pollen release anthesis.

The tapetum or nourishing layer comprises a tissue in which, during its development is the depository of starch granules. These serve to provide essential nutriment and energy for the ongoing development of the innermost cell mass, the sporogenous tissue.

The sporogenous tissue will eventually form tetrads of pollen grains microspores after a series of mitotic divisions followed by a final meiotic division, which produces each member of each tetrad having half of the parental chromosome number n or haploid state.

Production of Pollen Pollen grains or microspores are produced from pollen mother cells microsporocytes , within the anthers microsporangia or pollen sacs of the flower.

During its development two types of cells are differentiated within the anther; reproductive or sporangenous cells which give rise to pollen grains and the non-reproductive cells, which form the tissue layers such as epidermis, cortical and tapetal cell layers.

During the formation of the pollen grains microgametophyte two distinct successive developmental phases are recognized, they are the microsporogenesis and microgametogenesis, which are illustrated in Fig.

The pollen mother cells are poorly attached to each other by plasma connections. Later, pollen mother cells assume a spherical shape and get detached followed by a thick callose layer around them.

The pollen mother cells 2n undergo meiosis to give rise to four haploid microspores n. During this phenomenon, a callose wall separates the members of the tetrad from one another, which is continuous with the callose surrounding the entire tetrad as seen in the illustration Fig.

Mimosa pudica , rhomboidal e. Anona muricata , decussate e. Magnolia grandiflora , square depending on the orientation of meiotic spindle axes and the related cleavage planes.

Pollen grains get separated from tetrad and single pollen are called monads. In some plants two-pollen remain attached and are referred as dyads.

In a few plants, for example Calluna and Typha 4 pollen remain attached and are released from anthers as tetrads. In plants like Acacia 16 pollen remain attached and are referred as polyads.

In Asclepiadaceae and Orchidaceae numerous pollen are attached in units known as pollinia, which are basically polyads. The Role of Tapetum in Pollen Development The role of tapetum ascribed to the development of exine of the pollen grains as well as their nutrition is not very clear.

Investigators such as Ubisch , Maheshwari , Johri and Tiagi They came to this conclusion having located similar types of granules at the place of degenerated tapetum and also surrounding the developing microspores.

Regarding the role of tapetum in nutrition, the general inference comes from the rich cytoplasmic contents of the tissue and also from the fact of invasion of its cytoplasm between the growing pollen grains in some cases.

The following facts observed in some experiments carried on male sterile plants support both these findings. Origin of Exine On the basis of experimental work on plants of Sesamum and Gossypium, Singh concluded that the development of microspores to form normal and healthy pollen grains follows the tapetal degeneration and the resultant product is deposited on the pollen.

The development of exine of the pollen grains is dependent in some way on the behaviour of the tapetum, but the exact mechanism has yet to be found out.

Nutritional Role of Tapetum On the basis of Feulgen positive reactions in anthers at various stages the increase in DNA in the generative cell is due to its supply from the degenerating tapetum.

It has been made abundantly clear that the pollen grains thrive and develop further on degenerating tapetum but the exact nature of this dependence is so far not clearly demonstrated.

This substance is resistant to many physical and chemical forces. This complex is highly resistant to decay.

Sporollenin appears to be a polymerized cyclic alcohol related to suberin predominant in cork, callus and cutin. The durability of pollen walls is mainly due to the presence of this chemical substance.

In fact, the durability of pollen walls and hence preservation of pollen grains and spores millions of years ago is the fundamental basis of the science of palynology.

In addition to the walls of pollen and spores, the other palynomorphs such as dinoflagellates, acritarchs also have sporopollenin in their walls.

Sporopollenin is probably the most inert organic compound known. It resists acetolysis. Heslop-Harrison worked on the origin of sporopollenin and indicated that tapetum in anthers of flowers is responsible for producing and depositing sporopollenin in the exines of pollen.

Chemically, it has been suggested that sporopollenin is a copolymer of betacarotine, a xanthothyl such as antheraxanthin, and fatty acids.

However, the chemical nature of rubber differs from sporopollenin. As mentioned earlier, sporopollenin is present in exine outer wall of the spores and pollen.

In some fern spores, exine is enveloped by an additional wall referred as perine or perispore. Generally, aquatic flowering plants have very little sporopollenin or it is totally absent in the pollen wall.

Perhaps this is the reason why the pollen of aquatic plants are not preserved in the form of fossils. There are three types of sporopollenin containing elements associated with spores and pollen.

These are: viscin threads, elaters and ubisch bodies or orbicules. The evolutionary history of sporopollenin indicates that the oldest sporopollinious acritarichs occur in Precambrian rocks, which are 1.

Sporopollenin perhaps played a significant role in these organisms with regard to protection of protoplasm against ultraviolet radiation.

The green algae are presumably responsible for the development of sporopollenin and its introduction into the armament of higher green plants.

Its main function in the higher plants appears to be protection against oxidation and desiccation. The natural colour of sporopollenin is pale yellow, but with thermal maturation the colour deepens through dark yellow through orange, reddish brown, finally to black.

The specific gravity of the substance is about 1. Hence, pollen and spore exines pass through most animal guts including humans unaltered though the contents of the pollen grains are digested.

The oldest sporopollenin containing palynomorphs are sphaeromorphs acritarchs, over one billion years old have been described from the erstwhile Soviet Union and other parts of the world.

It will not be an exaggeration if pollen morphology is referred to as the mother of palynological studies. Proper identification of pollen and spores both of living and fossil plants is a prerequisite for exploiting their applications.

Pollen morphology is the principle tool used for correct identification. The slightest error in identification leads to an erroneous conclusion.

A recent example in this context which can be cited is concerned with the identification of airborne pollen in Bangalore. However, a systematic aeropalynological survey Agashe et al.

Various features of pollen are studied in pollen morphology. The last three characters seem to be the most important pollen morphological characters useful in basic identification and classification of pollen.

A number of terms have been coined to describe various pollen morphological characters. At times, confusion arises as the literature abounds with respect to different terminologies used by different palynologists.

However, in the present account the almost worldwideaccepted terminology proposed by Gunnar Erdtman, will be used. The pollen morphological descriptions will be adequately supported by suitable illustrations and examples.

Such a colour aspect is of value to beekeepers in identifying pollen source. Most pollen however are yellow when seen en masse on a white background.

The range of colours represented en masse is well illustrated by Hodges The shape of pollen grains is, like size, variable: round, oval flattered or elongated , long or triangular, semicircular, boat shaped.

Others may have several sides flat or rounded. It is important to bear in mind when examining pollen grains with a view to their identification, that they are the products of a biological system, which is subject to variation, that a degree of care is sometimes needed to interpret what is seen.

The wall exine of pollen grains have apertures — Poplar Populus is exceptional in lacking them as shown in Fig.

Pores and furrows may merge or be irregular in appearance. The exine surface can vary in its structure considerably.

It can be smooth, have granules, be striped striated , have a mesh or network, small holes or pits, or appear dotted which are the bases of spines more fully seen in the side view.

The exine when viewed from the edge, may appear thin or be composed of two or more layers, which may be separated by thick, thin or beaded rods.

Grains are usually simple, separating from the quartet during development in the pollen sac, each having its own complete exine.

Some pollen grains are released during dehiscence as quarters — compound grains for example in the Ericaceae and Juncaceae, families. The appearance of the cytoplasm may be as glass hyaline or granular.

Some plant families, for example Asteraceae, show a great variety of forms: grains with large spaces fenestrae such as Dandelions Taraxacum , Hawkweeds Hieracium and Sowthistles Sonchus , whilst others have spines of varying number and length, for example Senecio.

Again, in the Asteraceae family, Mugwort Artemisia vulgaris has a three-lobed grain with long rods tectum within each lobe separating the exine layers — this grain can be confused with those of Privet Ligustrum and grains of Cruciferae, such as Oil Seed Rape Brassica napus , which are similarly three-lobed.

Pollen of the large family of grasses, Poaceae, have the simplest structure, which is more or less round, thin walled with one single pore.

It is unlikely that genetically modified pollen GM can be distinguished from the natural non-GM, morphologically. GM treatment is of no significance to the palynologist working with pollen of wild plants as opposed to pollen of cultivated crop plants.

Pollen grains are reproductive cells male gametophytes. These specialized cells are provided with an extremely hard outer wall exine and an inner softer cellulose wall intine surrounding the cytoplasm with the vegetative and generative cells nuclei , and organelles.

The pollen grains may be single monads which is most common, or two-pollen united diads for example Scheuchzeria palustris or united in fours tetrads , or many, for example, multiples of fours polyads.

In Orchidaceae, Asclepiaceae and a few other families the grains are united in club-like masses pollinia Fig. With tetrads as a starting point we may discern polarity and symmetry.

There are different kinds of tetrads, tetrahedral, rhomboidal, tetragonal, linear, etc. In Dicolyledons, the tetrahedral type two planes dominates, in Monocotyledons the tetragonal or rhomboidal type occurs one plane only Figs.

The tetrad configuration different types of tetrads is often linked to the microspore divisions, for example tetrahedral tetrads simultaneous , and one-plane tetrads successive.

A polar axis, equatorial axis, polar diameter and equatorial diameter, distal pole, proximal pole, distal face and proximal face are distinguished in a pollen grain as shown in Figs.

With reference to this, it is possible to describe the location of various morphological features of the pollen grains and spores.

Pollen grains or spores may have similar poles isopolar , almost similar subisopolar , or dissimilar poles heteropolar , e.

Lycopodium Fig. Symmetry Pollen or spores may be symmetric or asymmetric. Asymmetric grains have no planes of symmetry and are either fixiform with fixed shape, which is the common case or nonfixiform without fixed shape, very rare.

Symmetric grains may be of two types: radiosymmetric radial grains have more than two vertical planes of symmetry, or, if provided with but two such planes, always with equilong equatorial axes.

Bilateral spores are more or less flattened having two vertical planes of symmetry but in contradiction to the radiosymmetric spores with two such planes, the equatorial axes are not equilong.

However, sometimes it is difficult to determine the symmetry as for example in Crypteronia and Isoglossa.

Most Dicotyledons are radially symmetrical, whereas most Monocotydons and primitive Dicotyledons are 19 Fig. Bilateral spores are also commonly produced in some Pteridophytes.

Size and Shape Size is important since structural differences are sometimes inadequate for distinguishing species, and size becomes a reliable criterion.

In Picea for example, such measurements have aided species identification. Families such as Boraginaceae Myosotis , Piperaceae, Crypteroniaceae Cunoniaceae have 21 Fig.

Probably the largest diam. Amphibolis has tubular pollen exceeding up to 5 mm long Ducker et al. There often appears to be a direct relation between size and number of pollen produced per anther.

For example, in Mirabilis only 32 very large pollen occur per loculus, whereas as many as 50, pollen grains are produced per loculus in Borago.

In Rumex acetosa 30, grains are produced per stamen. It also appears that, as a rule the largest grains are produced by ephemeral flowers lasting only a day.

In Carboniferous deposits, megaspores measuring up to about mm have been encountered as in Triletes giganteus. SHAPE OF THE POLLEN GRAINS The shape of pollen is often an important pollen morphological character.

The shape of pollen varies in different views. The outline in polar view or Amb L. Ambitus: short form Amb is circular, triangular, square, pentagonal, rounded, three-lobed or in other geometrical shapes.

Pollen and spores also differ considerably in their contours, walls Figs. As early as , Erdtman suggested certain terms to describe shapes of pollen grains based on the ratio of polar axis to equatorial axis P : E.

When the first artificial satellites were launched in and , the cameras tracked those satellites instead. But strangely enough, this does not mean that the Earth only has one natural satellite.

The Earth can have a very near satellite for a short time. But since they pass the upper atmosphere at each perigee, they will not last long, maybe only one or two, possibly a hundred revolutions about hours.

In addition to ephemeral satellites there are two more possibilities. He started his search in , visually with a good telescope.

He was hoping for reasonably large bodies in the lunar orbit, 60 degrees away from the Moon. The search was negative, but in his compatriot and colleague, Wilkowski, suggested that there may be many tiny bodies, too small to be seen individually but many enough to appear as a cloud of dust particles.

In such a case, they would be best visible without a telescope i. Dr Kordylewski was willing to try.

A dark night with clear skies, and the Moon being below the horizon, was required. In October , Kordylewski saw, for the first time, a fairly bright patch in one of the two positions.

It was not small, subtending an angle of 2 degrees i. In March and April , Kordylewski succeeded in photographing two clouds near the expected positions.

They seem to vary in extent, but that may be due to changing illumination. Roach detected these cloud satellites in with the OSO Orbiting Solar Observatory 6 spacecraft.

They are very hard to detect and to distinguish from the zodiacal light, in particular the Gegenschein. But people are still proposing additional natural satellites of the Earth.

Between and John Bargby, an American scientist, claimed to have observed at least ten small natural satellites of the Earth, visible only in a telescope.

Bargby found elliptical orbits for all the objects: eccentricity 0. Bargby considered them to be fragments of a larger body which broke up in December He based much of his suggested satellites on supposed perturbations of artificial satellites.

Bargby used artificial satellite data from Goddard Satellite Situation Report, unaware that the values in this publication are only approximate and sometimes grossly in error and can therefore not be used for any precise scientific analysis.

In , the Capuchin monk Anton Maria Shyrl claimed to really have seen the moons of Mars. We now know that would be impossible with the telescopes of that time — probably Shyrl got deceived by a star nearby Mars.

Their periods of revolution were 10 and In a German captain, Kindermann, had claimed to have seen the moon just one! Kindermann reported the orbital period of this martian moon as 59 hours 50 minutes and 6 seconds!

Their orbital periods are 7 hours 39 minutes and 30 hours 18 minutes, quite close to the periods guessed by Jonathan Swift years earlier!

It was seen several times, but not enough to determine an orbit, then lost. It used to show up as a footnote in texts of the late 70s.

This was the first time a satellite of another planet was discovered by photographical observations.

According to Pickering, it orbited Saturn between the orbits of Titan and Hyperion in a highly inclined orbit: mean distance from Saturn 1,, km, orbital period In , A.

Dollfus discovered another new moon of Saturn. It was so faint and close to the rings that the only chance to see it was when the rings of Saturn were seen from the edge, as happened in In , when Saturns rings again were seen edgewise, a flurry of observations discovered a lot of new satellites close to the rings of Saturn.

Their orbits are very close to each other, and the most interesting aspect of this satellite pair is that they regularly switch orbits with each other!

Adams presented two different solutions to the problem, assuming that the deviations were caused by the gravitation from an unknown planet.

Urbain Le Verrier presented his solution in , but France lacked the necessary resources to locate the planet. Nowadays, both Adams and Le Verrier share the credit of having predicted the existence and position of Neptune.

On 30 Sept , one week after the discovery of Neptune, Le Verrier declared that there may be still another unknown planet out there. In Ferguson was observing the motion of the minor planet Hygeia.

Maury, at the Naval Observatory, was also unable to find that star. The first serious attempt to find a trans-Neptunian planet was done in by David Todd.

Its longitude for The inclination was 1. Jupiter has the greatest share of such comets, and Saturn, Uranus and Neptune also have a few each.

Flammarion found two comets, III with a period of years and aphelion at Flammarion suggested that the hypothetical planet probably moved at 45 a.

One year later, in , professor Forbes published a memoir concerning the aphelia of comets and their association with planetary orbits.

Gaillot at Paris Observatory assumed two trans-Neptunian planets at 45 and 60 a. Dr Theodor Grigull of Munster, Germany, assumed in a Uranus-sized planet at 50 a.

In Hans-Emil Lau, Copenhagen, published elements of two trans-Neptunian planets at The longitudes of those hypothetical bodies were and degrees, both with the very large uncertainty of degrees.

In , Gabriel Dallet deduced a hypothetical planet at 47 a. This planet was supposed to be In , Thomas Jefferson Jackson See suggested three trans-Neptunian planets, at The inner planet had a period of A Russian general named Alexander Garnowsky suggested four hypothetical planets but failed to supply any details about them.

They were concerned with the same subject but used different approaches and arrived at different results. Pickering suggested eight other trans-Neptunian planets during the forthcoming 24 years.

Pickerings results caused Gaillot to revise the distances of his two trans-Neptunians to 44 and 66 a. All in all, from to , Pickering proposed seven hypothetical planets — O, P, Q, R, S, T and U.

His final elements for O and P define completely different bodies than the original ones, so the total can be set at nine, certainly the record for planetary prognostication.

Most of Pickerings predictions are only of passing interest as curiosities.

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German amateur on her p&period However, a systematic aeropalynological survey Agashe et al. Small yellow coloured flowers are produced in axillary raceme, which may be cm long. Default: msb Sphingid. In addition, several illustrations showing the structure of Tectate, Semitectate and Intectate pollen Erotikmesse Dortmund with suitable examples Taylor Sands fügt Ihre Finger in Ihre Feuchte Muschi been incorporated in Figs. At maturity they exhibit nothing Bbw Lecken the pluricellular tissue, which characterized the grains of the extinct Cordaitales and Bennettitales. The origins of sporopollenin differ in different parts of the pollen wall. Weber, saw a round spot on the Sun. CMU Sphinx Speech Recognition Toolkit Brought to you by: airarthchanawbbhikshaand 5 others. Default: 3 -Sphingid. If you want to get a full essay, dictate it on our website: OrderEssay. The intine though less resistant to acids is an essential layer composed of cellulose and pectins. The first serious attempt to find a trans-Neptunian planet was done in by David Todd. Comments 4 Spam comments 0. Deutsche Blondine geiler Oralsex. Sex with Boy

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